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Introduction to Paleontology

Introduction to Paleontology

Professor Stuart Sutherland, Ph.D.
The University of British Columbia

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Introduction to Paleontology

Course No. 1657
Professor Stuart Sutherland, Ph.D.
The University of British Columbia
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4.6 out of 5
58 Reviews
91% of reviewers would recommend this series
Course No. 1657
Video Streaming Included Free

What Will You Learn?

  • Discover the amazing story of the beginning of life on our dynamic planet.
  • Reveal the mass extinctions that threatened life itself.
  • Examine the ways in which life eventually adapted, evolved, and spread.

Course Overview

Produced in partnership with the Smithsonian, this fascinating and visually-stunning course opens brand new doors onto the 4.54 billion-year history of our world.

How did we—not just humans, but all of life, and planet Earth itself—come to be? To find out, you need everything from paleobotany and paleogeography to paleozoology—in short, what you need is the science of paleontology. From recently exposed fossils to new theories about our ancestors, this exciting science is positively exploding with new, game-changing discoveries. In Introduction to Paleontology, you’ll see how new technologies like dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and x-ray computer tomography have joined the tried-and-true backhoe, hammer, and chisel.

Introduction to Paleontology provides a walk back in time through Earth’s history from a lifeless planet to initial bursts of life, from extinctions to life again, and ultimately to our world today. Relying considerably on the National Museum of Natural History‘s curatorial expertise and extensive collections of paleontological fossils, maps, records, and images—with more than 2,500 gorgeous and unique visuals—you’ll see the world as it’s never before been envisioned. Additionally, the expert curators at the Smithsonian helped to shape the structure and content of the course, and reviewed each lecture against the most up-to-date information and understanding of paleontology today.

You’ll watch the continents shift in an infinitesimally slow but never-ending reformation of the globe. You’ll learn about the many times life on Earth has just barely survived mass extinctions and how the planet itself has changed, from a “Snowball Earth,” with ice covering the surface from pole to pole, to life-threatening global heatwaves caused by plumes of hot rocks rising from Earth’s mantle below ancient Siberia. You’ll follow 9 million years of natural selection, witnessing how a land dwelling creature the size of a raccoon living in India 54 million years ago would give rise to a line of marine mammals and, ultimately, Earth’s largest animal. You’ll even have a front-row seat at the 21st century discovery of an extinct species of our own genus, Homo floresiensis, the little people who lived on the island of Flores in the Indonesian archipelago.

Your guide through this revealing new look at Earth’s past, Dr. Stuart Sutherland,

Professor of Teaching in the Department of Earth Ocean and Atmospheric Sciences at the University of British Columbia, Vancouver clearly explains in 24 in-depth lectures:

  • how the science of paleontology developed, coalescing information from geology, biology, ecology, anthropology, and archaeology to help us better understand the fascinating and sometimes shocking history of planet Earth
  • the development and use of the tools of paleontology over decades and through many technological breakthroughs
  • how micro- and macro-fossils can reveal information about the minerology, climate, and atmospheric chemistry of the Earth through time, as well as the interrelation of species with their environments
  • how trace fossils can reveal information about a lifeform and its behavior, even if fossilized remains of the lifeform itself are not available
  • why the only way to really understand our world is by considering it as a system composed of interactive parts, not as separate, stand-alone boxes of information

Dr. Sutherland is a paleontologist with particular expertise in microfossils and their usefulness in paleoceanographic studies. A multi-award-winning teacher with a great sense of humor, his fascination with his subject and passion for sharing the study of paleontology bring an infectious excitement to his lectures—whether he’s talking about a world-famous megafauna fossil find or the minerology of ocean sediments. In fact, when it comes to his love of fossils, Dr. Sutherland says “I’m a kid who never grew up. I get the same feeling of excitement as a 6-year-old when I wander through a collection like the Smithsonian’s.”

While the paleontological terms and species names might be unfamiliar, Dr. Sutherland makes the lectures very easy to follow by clearly stating up front exactly what topics and questions he will be addressing in each lecture, with a special focus on recent discoveries and new information. Each lecture also features a stunning array of visuals, many of which are exclusive to the Smithsonian’s legendary collections and have been expertly curated to help each topic come alive.

Meet Fascinating Creatures from Earth’s Past:
Earth today supports myriad lifeforms that seem very different from us, from microscopic arthropods to the massive blue whale. But in this course, you’ll learn about a variety of extinct flora and fauna that can be difficult for us to even imagine:

  • Trilobites, arthropods that were extremely important in Earth's oceans for more than 250 million years and, with their sophisticated eyes, were probably some of the first animals to gaze upon each other
  • Opabinia, a swimmer discovered in the Burgess Shale with five eyes and a long, flexible proboscis with grasping spines
  • Prototaxites, one of the largest Devonian land-based lifeforms, a massive fungus-like organism that could stand up to 26 feet tall
  • Lystrosaurus, a stubby, shovel-faced, mammal-like reptile that could eat surface vegetation and probably also dig for food in the impoverished world after the Permian extinction
  • Homo neanderthalensis, whom the Neanderthal Genome Project has now revealed to have been similar enough to Homo sapiens to have interbred and produced viable offspring, resulting in approximately 30 to 40 percent of the Neanderthal genome found in the human population today

What Caused the Cycles of Mass Extinction and New Life on Earth?
The expansion and spread of life on Earth has certainly not been a linear process of constant development. Far from it. Life on our planet has experienced numerous cycles of diversification followed by extinctions. The recovery and evolution of new life forms after a mass extinction has sometimes occurred in a relatively quick span of geological time and sometimes much more slowly. For example, before the Cambrian period, life on Earth consisted primarily of simple structures. But during a relatively short time in evolutionary terms, complex life forms seemed to explode onto the scene. Professor Sutherland also explores why Charles Darwin initially found this Cambrian explosion so disheartening for the development of his theories on evolution and how the Burgess Shale discovery greatly increased our knowledge of Cambrian life.

To better understand the cycles of life on Earth, paleontologists must ask questions that may sound strange to us today, such as:

  • Could something we regard as a sign of a healthy biosphere today have contributed to the devastation of life on Earth over 359 million years ago?
  • Has Homo sapiens already suffered a near-extinction in a natural disaster that may have caused a population bottleneck 100,000 years ago or are will still searching for a cause?
  • Is it possible that a microbe— an extreme thermophile just like we find in modern oceanic hydrothermal settings— could be the Last Universal Common Ancestor of all life on Earth today?
  • What series of events led to the Permian mass extinction, a catastrophe that wiped out around 90 percent of all species on Earth?

From Sea to Land and Back Again
When we look at today’s majestic whales, we sometimes wonder why their ancestors “chose” to return to the sea, swapping legs for fins. The question though is fundamentally flawed as creatures do not “chose” to evolve, rather, in the case of whales, millions of years of natural selection allowed the ancestors of the whales to inhabit increasingly more aquatic environments. Through many transitional forms, exemplified by creatures like Ambulocetus (the “walking whale”) these mammals adapted to and came to thrive in the aquatic environment. You will also learn the importance of understanding what is meant when species “share a common ancestor” as we examine the relationship between the hippopotamus and the whales of today.

When examining the evolutionary shift between land and sea, the significance of the Cerro Ballena fossil site in Chile comes into stark relief, not only illuminating the history of Earth’s large mammals, but also the process of paleontological discovery. When a construction crew widening the Pan-American Highway exposed a whale fossil site, Smithsonian curators and technology specialists were able to “excavate” the site digitally using 3D scanning. Scientists can now continue to study the site from afar while the fossils themselves are no longer physically accessible.

Learn about the Future by Studying the Past
Dr. Sutherland closes the course by discussing the role paleontology could play in the crises potentially facing planet Earth in the future. From the continual movement of continents, to known super-volcanoes that could be catastrophic to civilization in the future, to meteorites and asteroids striking the planet, Earth will most likely endure massive changes in the future as it has in the past. While there is little we can do to protect against some of these events, Dr. Sutherland gives special attention to those, such as environmental issues caused by climate change and pollution, that we may be able to mitigate with knowledge and vigilance. In his own words:

”By understanding the reaction of the biosphere to sudden catastrophic change in the past as preserved in the rocks and fossils, we can more fully appreciate current changes in the Earth system. But with conservation and proper environmental management these trends could be reversed. I think paleontology has a vital role to play in these efforts.”

Join Dr. Sutherland in witnessing some of the most thrilling paleontological finds in history. You’ll be amazed by the depth of information paleontologists can discern about planet Earth millions of years in the past and what that might tell us about our own future. Introduction to Paleontology will open your eyes to a history more thrilling than science fiction could have imagined. You’ll never look at your home planet the same way again.

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24 lectures
 |  31 minutes each
  • 1
    History on a Geological Scale
    Take an exciting virtual walk from the Washington Monument to the U.S. Capital to explore the 4.54 billion-year history of Earth, with each of your strides representing 1 to 2 million years. Along the way, fossils will paint a picture of life on Earth, from the earliest known bacteria to our world today. x
  • 2
    Life Cast in Ancient Stone
    Learn about the fascinating individuals and showmen whose curiosity about the Earth and its fossils led to the development of the science of paleontology. But how easy is it to find fossils? Learn about the geographic, climatic, and chemical requirements for a living organism to leave behind its fossilized record. x
  • 3
    Tools of the Paleontological Trade
    In addition to the basic mechanical tools still used in the field today, paleontologists now have an exciting digital tool chest. What can we learn from dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and x-ray computer tomography when they are used to examine fossils from the size of pollen to the bones of Tyrannosaurus rex? x
  • 4
    How Do You Fossilize Behavior?
    While we rarely if ever find the fossilized remains of certain types of organisms, we can find evidence of their existence as they interacted with the environment. Learn how these trace fossils-e.g., fossilized burrows, tracks, ripples, nests, feces-help us understand the early evolution of the biosphere and the diversification of animal life. x
  • 5
    Taxonomy: The Order of Life
    How much does the scientific name of an animal, past or present, really matter? From Carl Linnaeus' Systema Naturae to the modern system of cladistics, you'll be amazed how much we can learn about the history of life on Earth simply from our ongoing efforts at classification. x
  • 6
    Minerals and the Evolving Earth
    Paleontology provides a different lens to view how our planet's 4,400 minerals developed over billions of years-both influencing and being influenced by our evolving biosphere. Learn how Earth's few primordial minerals interacting with liquid water, plate tectonics, and eventually photosynthesis would create an explosion of mineral species seen nowhere else in our solar system. x
  • 7
    Fossil Timekeepers
    Our planet's fossil record reveals that the natural cycles we take for granted today were previously quite different. Learn how biostratigraphy, sclerochronology, Carbon-14 dating, and other tools reveal a historic Earth with a day as short as six hours and a year as long as 455 days. x
  • 8
    Fossils and the Shifting Crust
    Why do we find life on Earth exactly where it is today? Why are some species found only in isolated pockets while others are spread across multiple continents? Learn what fossils tell us about our planet's exciting historic migrations-of flora, fauna, and the continents themselves. x
  • 9
    Our Vast Troves of Microfossils
    When we think of fossils, we tend to visualize large shells or bones. Microfossils, though, can reveal a more complete and dynamic picture of the past, including some of the most ancient history of life on Earth and details of climate change over 100's of millions of years with a resolution just not possible from large macro" fossils." x
  • 10
    Ocean Fire and the Origin of Life
    For centuries, scientists believed all life on earth was powered by the sun via photosynthesis. That was before ecosystems, powered by chemosynthesis, were found at volcanic oceanic ridge systems. Paleontologists have now found examples fossilized vent systems over a billion years old and the life that lived around them. These exciting fossils and their modern equivalents may help us understand the beginning of life on Earth and point us to life elsewhere in our solar system. x
  • 11
    The Ancient Roots of Biodiversity
    What is the Cambrian explosion? Why did Charles Darwin find the apparent sudden emergence of complex life so puzzling, and what have paleontologists today revealed about this period of Earth's history? Learn what the very latest findings tell us about how the stage might have been set for such rapid adaptation and diversification of life on Earth. x
  • 12
    Arthropod Rule on Planet Earth
    Arthropods live successfully all around the Earth today, but it was an extinct group of arthropods, the trilobites, that dominated the globe following the Cambrian explosion. With the benefits of exoskeletons and their well-developed eyes, trilobites were a significant presence in earth's oceans for 250 million years, evolving into more than 20,000 species with a variety of life styles. x
  • 13
    Devonian Death and the Spread of Forests
    Today we look at forests as a sign of a healthy biosphere. But is it possible that the earliest forestation of our planet-as plants became larger, developed seeds, roots, and wood and expanded away from the shoreline-could be responsible for mass extinction towards the end of the Devonian period? x
  • 14
    Life's Greatest Crisis: The Permian
    What could have caused the Permian mass extinction, when around 90 percent of all species became extinct in the geological blink of an eye? Learn what paleontology reveals about the cascading series of events that led to runaway global warming and the greatest catastrophe faced on earth since the evolution of complex life. x
  • 15
    Life's Slow Recovery after the Permian
    Although after most mass extinctions, the biosphere is well on its way to recovery within several hundred thousand years, recovery took many times longer after the Permian extinction. Eventually though, life adapted and diversified into a wide variety of exciting new plants and animals. Enter the dinosaurs. x
  • 16
    Dinosaur Interpretations and Spinosaurus
    Learn how a recent discovery might answer Romer's Riddle" and give us a new picture of Spinosaurus, the largest carnivorous dinosaurs to have ever lived. With an elaborate sail on his back and an interpretation that this dinosaur may have been semi-aquatic, Spinosaurus is at the center of much debate in the paleontological community today." x
  • 17
    Whales: Throwing Away Legs for the Sea
    Learn how descendants of a small raccoon-sized animal that lived in India evolved into modern marine whales. From this small herbivore, within the geological blink of an eye, the power of natural selection would generate a whole array of wonderful creatures including the blue whale, possibly the largest animal to have ever lived on Earth. x
  • 18
    Insects, Plants, and the Rise of Flower Power
    We owe a lot to the angiosperms. Not only do their flowers create a world of beauty, but their fruits helped drive human civilization. But did flowers first appear in water or on land? And what is the history and origin of the wonderful partnership between insects and flowering plants? x
  • 19
    The Not-So-Humble Story of Grass
    With the evolution of grasses came the grassland biomes-the prairies, pampas, and steppes that cover almost 40 percent of Earth's land surface today. Learn how this biome impacted animal evolution, including our own ancestors as they moved out of Africa and around the planet, facilitated by a carpet of grasses. x
  • 20
    Australia's Megafauna: Komodo Dragons
    Meet the Komodo dragon, a 200-pound lizard found on several relatively small Indonesian islands today. Paleontologists now know these specimens are a relic population of a lineage of giant monitor lizards once common in Australia. But exactly how did these animals make that trip? And how much longer is their species likely to survive? x
  • 21
    Mammoths, Mastodons, and the Quest to Clone
    When the Mastodon became the first extinct species to be discovered, much that the Western world knew to be true-i.e., the Biblical description of the creation timeline-was suddenly called into question. Today, the Mastodon offers us another major ethical challenge: Would it be possible for scientists to use their DNA and bring them back?"" x
  • 22
    The Little People of Flores
    Although little folk are common characters in mythology, scientists had never thought they actually existed-until a team of archaeologists made a fascinating discovery on the Indonesian island of Flores in 2003. But exactly who exactly is Homo floresiensis? And through what lineage could we be related? x
  • 23
    The Neanderthal Among Us
    For years, we thought of Neanderthals as brutish, ignorant, distant cousins we could mostly ignore. Not any longer. As revealed by The Neanderthal Genome Project, modern humans and Neanderthals were sufficiently similar to have interbred and produced viable offspring. As much as 30 to 40 percent of the Neanderthal genome may be spread throughout the human population today. x
  • 24
    Paleontology and the Future of Earth
    What paleontologists have learned about Earth's history so far reveals that change is just about our only constant. Given that only a minute fraction of the information held in the Earth's crust has been discovered so far, paleontology will continue to be a significant gateway to understanding the past and present, and perhaps provide insight into the future of our planet. x

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Your professor

Stuart Sutherland

About Your Professor

Stuart Sutherland, Ph.D.
The University of British Columbia
Dr. Stuart Sutherland is a Professor in the Department of Earth, Ocean and Atmospheric Sciences at The University of British Columbia (UBC). Raised in the United Kingdom, he earned an undergraduate degree in geology from the University of Plymouth and a Ph.D. in Geological Sciences from the University of Leicester for his studies on Silurian microfossils called chitinozoa. Professor Sutherland discovered his passion for...
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Introduction to Paleontology is rated 4.6 out of 5 by 57.
Rated 5 out of 5 by from I tried to paleontology Love it learning a lot. I'm a closet paleontology anyway
Date published: 2017-08-30
Rated 4 out of 5 by from Earth's Story. An interesting enough course well taught but the presentation was rather dry and abrupt. There were some good video clips and visuals. Recommended
Date published: 2017-08-28
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Got my money's worth--and then some A+ course. Riveting all the way through. Smartly written, captivating graphics, and humorously presented. If I may be so bold, I place this course up there on the top shelf with Understanding the Universe: An Introduction to Astronomy by Alex Filippenko and Big History: The Big Bang, Life on Earth, and the Rise of Humanity by David Christian. What do these courses have in common? For me, they create a sense of awe and mystery about world we live in; and I can’t help but have a greater admiration and respect for the scientific minds who, over generations, have been able to unlock some of the mysteries of the universe. The end result is that these courses open your eyes to a wider perspective, one that I couldn’t have imagined on my own. In Introduction to Paleontology, you find out that the field is much more than dinosaurs. And fossils are not limited to dusty bones. Humdrum topics about grass, insects, minerals, taxonomy, etc. are anything but. Professor Sutherland is a fantastic lecturer, lively and humorous. I enjoyed the anecdotes and brief asides. Don’t make me beg, but if I have to I will. Sutherland and dinosaurs at the Smithsonian would be epic.
Date published: 2017-08-20
Rated 5 out of 5 by from A Very Enlightening and Entertaining Journey I did not realize how many disciplines and technologies were employed in paleontology to gather and understand information which then is melded into the story about the evolution of this small planet. It is truly remarkable how the people in this field have decomposed their findings and converted this information into the visualization of our planet and its occupants over hundreds of millions years! What an interesting story/journey. I can no longer just think of the world globe with continents and oceans arranged as they are today. Nor can I consider this current configuration to be static. It is changing continually but on a time scale much, much longer than the span of the life that we know for ourselves. Professor Sutherland did an outstanding job of arranging, editing and presented this course. He was/is an excellent "tour guide". Try it, I think you'll like it.
Date published: 2017-07-29
Rated 5 out of 5 by from What a great courose I never had the opportunity to study this topic in university. It concisely covers the history of the earth and evolution. The lecturer is very gracious and acknowledges leaders in his field.
Date published: 2017-07-13
Rated 4 out of 5 by from Needs More Dinos Let me first say that this is an excellent intro to paleontology with an energetic and thorough professor. I'll admit to disappointment though... In my ignorance of what a course on paleontology means, I thought this course was really going to focus on dinosaurs. I watched this in anticipation of a trip to a natural history museum with lots of dinosaurs, and I hoped to learn more to enlighten my trip. I think I learned a lot that will make the trip more enjoyable, but I didn't learn that much about dinosaurs. I assumed, wrongly, that paleontology meant dinosaurs. This course taught me that paleontology is much more than dinosaurs, and for that reason I'm happy I took the course. However, it still leaves the burning issue...what about the dinos? This course is overall pretty weak on the discussion of dinosaurs...so, be sure you know what to expect before watching this. I would love to see a course that just focuses on dinosaurs.
Date published: 2017-07-12
Rated 5 out of 5 by from Superb course with over-produced staging Sutherland is an outstanding lecturer and very clearly loves his subject. This is a wonderful introduction to paleontology. I have read several books on paleontology and history of the earth, and found this an excellent way to tie all the pieces together. He also included pertinent information on recent discoveries that were not in the texts that I read (and they were only a few years old!) I can't wait to start on his course on the history of life. My only quibble with the course is the very frequent advertising of the Smithsonian and repetition of information on the Burgess Shale and its discovery by the Smithsonian. Mercifully, this tapered off as the course progressed. Mind you, when the Smithsonian's staff has been instrumental in key discoveries, they deserve to be featured. The header for the individual lectures is pompous. The set on the other hand is very sleek, modern, and perfect for the subject.
Date published: 2017-06-26
Rated 5 out of 5 by from The best I have taken ~75 GCs, and this was the best of them all. Great presenter, organized , good delivery. Great graphics Unusual mode of organization, based a lot on the geological ages, which I think enhanced understanding.
Date published: 2017-06-18
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