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  • Experiencing Hubble: Exploring the Milky Way

    Professor David M. Meyer, Ph.D.

    Available Formats: Instant Video, DVD
    Taught by Dr. David Meyer of Northwestern University, this course takes you on a tour of the Milky Way galaxy through spectacular images during the Hubble Space Telescope's third decade of operation. You view stars, star cluster, nebulae, and more, while learning such concepts as star birth, planet formation, black holes, and galactic evolution. The result is a tour that is as awe-inspiring as it is instructive, while also showing what it means to live in a galaxy.
    View Lecture List (12)
    Taught by Dr. David Meyer of Northwestern University, this course takes you on a tour of the Milky Way galaxy through spectacular images during the Hubble Space Telescope's third decade of operation. You view stars, star cluster, nebulae, and more, while learning such concepts as star birth, planet formation, black holes, and galactic evolution. The result is a tour that is as awe-inspiring as it is instructive, while also showing what it means to live in a galaxy.
    View Lecture List (12)
    12 Lectures  |  Experiencing Hubble: Exploring the Milky Way
    Lecture Titles (12)
    • 1
      The Unseen Face of Our Spiral Galaxy
      Your Hubble Space Telescope tour of the Milky Way galaxy begins with an overview of the spectacular images you will encounter in the course. Dr. Meyer notes that our location in the disk of the Milky Way makes it difficult to discern the galaxy's large-scale structure. But by studying clues both near and far, astronomers have identified another spiral galaxy that is a close match to ours. x
    • 2
      Viewing the Galaxy through a Comet
      Focus on Comet ISON as it passes inside the orbit of Jupiter, just a few light-minutes from Earth. In the same frame, Hubble reveals additional distant objects in our galaxy, but also galaxies billions of light years distant—a striking case of extreme depth of field. Discover that comets are icy leftovers from the formation of the solar system, and they populate the Oort Cloud, which extends partway to the nearest star, Proxima Centauri. x
    • 3
      A Cloud of Stardust: The Horsehead Nebula
      Your stop in this lecture is the famous Horsehead Nebula—a two-light-year appendage of a vast molecular cloud composed of gas and dust. Dr. Meyer discusses the physical processes that turn these clouds into stellar nurseries. The horsehead shape is the accidental outcome of ultraviolet radiation pouring from a nearby young star, which acts like a blowtorch on the dark nebular material. x
    • 4
      A Star Awakens: The Jets of Herbig-Haro 24
      Described in a Hubble press release as a “cosmic, double-bladed lightsaber,” Herbig-Haro 24 is a pair of energetic jets emerging from the polar regions of a newborn star. Such jets are a common feature in star-forming regions. Their high speed and tendency to form in pulses allow long-lived observatories like Hubble to show them in action via time-lapse movies made over several years. x
    • 5
      A Star Cluster Blossoms: Westerlund 2
      Visit some of the hottest, most luminous stars in the galaxy, the young cluster known as Westerlund 2. Compare this group with other star clusters, using the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram to grasp what color and luminosity say about stellar evolution. Drawing on this information, predict the future of Westerlund 2, and reflect on the cluster where the Sun probably formed 4.6 billion years ago. x
    • 6
      An Interstellar Cavity: The Bubble Nebula
      Focus on the delicate Bubble Nebula, a sphere of gas 8 light-years across, which is being inflated by the strong wind from a hot, young star 45 times more massive than the Sun. Many such structures have been recorded by Hubble, vividly showing the process of mass loss by stars—sometimes gradually, sometimes explosively—which enriches space with elements heavier than helium. x
    • 7
      The Interstellar Echo of a Variable Star
      In one of the most beautiful sequences ever photographed by Hubble, a ring of light radiates through a nebula—like ripples from a stone tossed in a pond. This view is the light echo of a Cepheid variable star, seen in time-lapse as it reverberates at light speed through the surrounding dust cloud. Learn how the properties of Cepheids are the key to measuring distances in our galactic neighborhood. x
    • 8
      Tracing the Veil of a Prehistoric Supernova
      Thousands of years ago, light from a stellar explosion in the constellation Cygnus reached Earth. Ever since, remnants of that supernova event have been speeding apart, until they now form a ghostly feature called the Veil Nebula. View Hubble and other telescopic images to learn how supernovae shape the elemental composition of the galaxy, making possible rocky planets such as Earth. x
    • 9
      The Stellar Vortex at the Galactic Center
      Begin a new section of the course that investigates the large-scale structure of the Milky Way. In this lecture, journey to the galactic center, which Hubble shows to be populated by millions of densely packed stars, orbiting a black hole with the mass of 4 million suns. Study other examples of supermassive black holes in galactic cores and theories on how they form. x
    • 10
      The Galactic Halo's Largest Star Cluster
      Over a hundred globular star clusters are scattered like sparkling snow globes in a halo around the Milky Way. Each is composed of hundreds of thousands to millions of stars. Explore Hubble's views of the inner regions of these clusters, learning their connection to the early epoch of star formation in the universe. Some of the clusters are remnants of dwarf galaxies, captured by the Milky Way. x
    • 11
      Satellite Galaxies: The Magellanic Clouds
      Zero in on the largest of the Milky Way's satellite galaxies: the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds, known as LMC and SMC. View Hubble's images of the Tarantula Nebula with its brilliant cluster R136 in the LMC, and NGC 602 in the SMC (often voted as one of the top 10 Hubble photos of all time). Trace the likely history of the Magellanic Clouds and their link to the origin of the Milky Way. x
    • 12
      The Future of the Milky Way
      Finish your tour of the Milky Way by traveling to the nearest large galaxy, Andromeda, seeing it in a dazzling composite of 7,400 Hubble exposures in 411 star fields. Chart the fate of the Milky Way as Andromeda speeds toward it for a collision billions of years from now. Hubble's views of other galactic collisions show what to expect from this surprisingly graceful merger of two giant galaxies. x
  • World War II: Battlefield Europe

    Professor David R. Stone, PhD

    Available Formats: Instant Video, DVD

    Designed in partnership with HISTORY® and using a distinctly European perspective, World War II: Battlefield Europe provides a fresh lens through which to study major battles, larger-than-life personalities, twists of fate, and tales of intrigue. Over 24 lectures, a military historian reveals the strategic decisions behind U-boat assaults, D-Day, the Battle of the Bulge, the fall of Berlin, and so much more.

    View Lecture List (24)

    Designed in partnership with HISTORY® and using a distinctly European perspective, World War II: Battlefield Europe provides a fresh lens through which to study major battles, larger-than-life personalities, twists of fate, and tales of intrigue. Over 24 lectures, a military historian reveals the strategic decisions behind U-boat assaults, D-Day, the Battle of the Bulge, the fall of Berlin, and so much more.

    View Lecture List (24)
    24 Lectures  |  World War II: Battlefield Europe
    Lecture Titles (24)
    • 1
      The Battle of Moscow, December 1941
      Start this series with an examination of what Professor Stone sees as the critical turning point of World War II: the Battle of Moscow in December 1941. At the opening of the fight, Hitler stood on the verge of total victory; by the end, a massive Soviet counteroffensive marked the beginning of the end for the Nazis. x
    • 2
      Anti-Semitism and the Nazis
      Hitler's effort to exterminate the Jews of Europe is a central part of the way we think about Nazism and World War II. Here, investigate the evolution of anti-Semitism in Europe from a belief system rooted in religion to a new form of anti-Semitism that was racial and biological-an evolution that paved the way for the Holocaust. x
    • 3
      Tearing Up the Treaty of Versailles
      What elements in the Treaty of Versailles made it a priority for Hitler to undermine and destroy? What factors kept other global powers from stopping Hitler's rise to power? What made the Spanish Civil War a symptom of World War II? How did the fate of Czechoslovakia weaken Stalin's faith in an alliance with the West? x
    • 4
      The War Begins, 1939
      With Germany's land grab in 1939, Britain and France reluctantly concluded that Hitler was bent on European domination. Follow the story of the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact between Germany and the Soviet Union, the dramatic invasion of Poland in September 1939, and the rise of a new kind of German warfare called blitzkrieg (lightning war")." x
    • 5
      The Nazis Rise to Power, 1922-1933
      Adolf Hitler launched a catastrophic war that killed an estimated 60 million people. What brought this murderous individual-and his murderous ideology-into power in Nazi Germany? In this lecture, Professor Stone puts the rise of Nazi Germany in context of the European environment of the 1920s and 1930s. x
    • 6
      The Fall of France, Spring 1940
      Investigate how Hitler achieved such a rapid and smashing initial advance in World War II. Topics include Germany's campaigns in Denmark and Norway, the collapse of British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain's government, the French defeat in the Battle of the Meuse River, and the rise of the Vichy regime under Marshal Philippe Petain. x
    • 7
      The Battle of Britain-and the Blitz
      Study the strategic decisions during one of the most dramatic chapters in World War II: the Battle of Britain. Why did Britain keep fighting from a seemingly hopeless position? Why did Hitler attempt to use air power to drive Britain out of the war? How did the island nation eventually deliver Hitler his first real failure? x
    • 8
      Britain and Germany's Standoff at Sea
      Here, explore how Grand Admiral Erich Raeder and Karl Donitz shaped Germany's surface and U-boat fleets, how Germany and Britain faced a whale-elephant" problem during the war at sea, and how the daring British attack on the naval base at Taranto in 1940 hinted at the attack on U.S. forces at Pearl Harbor a year later." x
    • 9
      Hitler, Stalin, and Operation Barbarossa
      By the spring and summer of 1940, the Hitler-Stalin Pact was under real strain. Go inside the strategic decision-making behind Hitler's decision to break his non-aggression pact with the Soviet Union and to ignite Operation Barbarossa in a grand (and flawed) effort to invade and conquer Stalin's Russia. x
    • 10
      Roosevelt, Isolationism, and Lend-Lease
      Follow the transition in the United States from a period of isolationism in the 1920s to preparations for possible war with Germany in 1940. Topics include the five neutrality acts designed to prevent the United States from being drawn into war, the push for U.S. rearmament in the late 1930s, and the Plan Dog Memorandum: a classic piece of military strategy. x
    • 11
      North Africa and the Battle of el-Alamein
      Trace the Mediterranean and North African campaigns through 1943, with a focus on Mussolini's ambition to create a new Roman empire-an ambition that would collapse into ignominious failure. Also, investigate the mechanics of the climactic battle of el-Alamein and the Anglo-American invasion of North Africa code-named Operation Torch. x
    • 12
      The Battle of Stalingrad, 1942-1943
      Turn now to the Battle of Stalingrad, one of the epic struggles of World War II-and in all of military history. Professor Stone puts the dramatic Stalingrad campaign into a broader strategic context and reveals how the German army's losses made a possible victory in Europe impossible to imagine. x
    • 13
      Resistance in Nazi-Occupied Europe
      Take a step back from the chronology of World War II to think about how European countries occupied by Nazi Germany both collaborated with and resisted their occupiers. You'll look at heroic examples of resistance and espionage in Norway, the French resistance against Germany, and important partisan movements in Yugoslavia and the Soviet Union. x
    • 14
      The Holocaust
      In the second half of 1941, Hitler decided to murder every Jew in Europe. How did the extermination camp system operate? How did one escapee manage to inform others about the horrors of Auschwitz? What could the Allies have done to stop (or even slow down) the Holocaust? x
    • 15
      U-Boats and the Battle of the Atlantic
      First, explore the development of submarine warfare and the typical stages of a submarine encounter in the Atlantic. Then, examine how German U-boats caught the United States off guard and how British intelligence helped ships avoid German wolf packs." Lastly, take a closer look at the strategy of the Battle of the Atlantic, where the Allied struggle was finally won." x
    • 16
      The Allies Invade Italy: Sicily to Anzio
      Was the Allied invasion of Italy a strategic necessity or, as many at the time suggested, a sideshow? Consider both sides in this lecture on Operation Husky, the invasion of Sicily, and two key battles-at Monte Cassino and Anzio-that illustrate the incredible tenacity of Allied soldiers, but also the uninspired generalship that led to an enormous waste of lives. x
    • 17
      Strategic Bombing over Germany
      While precise figures are difficult to determine, it's estimated that some 500,000 lives in Germany were lost to Allied bombing. In this lecture, ponder the costs and rewards of strategic bombing during World War II in terms of dollars and human lives. Should Britain and the United States have invested their resources in something else? x
    • 18
      Allied Industry, Spying, and Wonder Weapons
      Discover the ways that intelligence (from spying to espionage to assassination) contributed to the Allies' ultimate battlefield success. Follow Germany's desperate search for miracle weapons like the V-2 rocket. Explore why the real miracle weapon of World War II wasn't a weapon at all, but mass industrial production. x
    • 19
      Soviets, Germans, and the Eastern Front
      Learn how military events on the Eastern Front from 1943 to 1945 drove political deal-making between the Germans and the Soviets. Focus on Operation Citadel, the German counteroffensive at Kursk; how Germany's smaller allies, including Hungary and Romania, got off Hitler's sinking ship; and the largest operation of World War II (which followed 17 days after D-Day), the Soviet offensive in Belorussia that resulted in the biggest defeat in German military history. x
    • 20
      D-Day at Last, June 1944
      Go behind the scenes of the most iconic military operation of the war: the D-Day invasion of mainland Europe. Focus on Germany's strategy for defense against the coming invasion (including debates over fighting before or after the Allies arrived ashore) and the Slapton Sands landing exercise, where hundreds of Allied soldiers died after an attack by small German attack craft known as E-boats. x
    • 21
      Hitler Runs Out of Options, Fall 1944
      Follow the progress of Allied forces as they steadily ground down German formations, reinforcements, and supplies. Finally, reach the last major German offensive of the Western Front at the Battle of the Bulge, which carved a hole 60 miles deep and 30 miles wide in the American line. x
    • 22
      Soviet Push to Berlin and Yalta Power Play
      With overwhelming advantages in men, tanks, and artillery, the Soviets smashed through German lines in Poland and made their way toward Berlin. Learn how this push set the stage for the momentous agenda at the Allied leadership conference in Yalta, where plans were made to stop a future Germany from starting another global war. x
    • 23
      Eisenhower's Endgame in Europe
      Why did Hitler keep fighting even when he knew all hope was lost? Why did his generals and their armies stick with him? How did the Allies finally bring an end to German resistance? How did Eisenhower and the Soviets debate the terms of surrender? Find out in this penultimate lecture. x
    • 24
      War's End: Picking Up the Pieces
      From the fate of everyday Germans and captured German leadership to the creation of NATO and the European Union, take stock of the global situation at the end of World War II. It was a time that would see a system of cooperation for the Allies-as well as the dawn of a lengthy Cold War with the Soviet Union. x
  • Taking Control of Your Personal Data

    Professor Jennifer Golbeck, PhD

    Available Formats: Instant Video, DVD
    We have never before in human history been able to share so much about ourselves so quickly. Neither have we ever been so exposed to forces that want to take advantage of that capability. This course will open your eyes to the surprising extent of that exposure and will discuss your options for keeping your personal data as safe as possible, help you determine your personal privacy profile, and understand the current U.S. laws and proposed state laws regarding privacy.
    View Lecture List (12)
    We have never before in human history been able to share so much about ourselves so quickly. Neither have we ever been so exposed to forces that want to take advantage of that capability. This course will open your eyes to the surprising extent of that exposure and will discuss your options for keeping your personal data as safe as possible, help you determine your personal privacy profile, and understand the current U.S. laws and proposed state laws regarding privacy.
    View Lecture List (12)
    12 Lectures  |  Taking Control of Your Personal Data
    Lecture Titles (12)
    • 1
      How Your Data Tells Secrets
      You probably know that anything you post on the internet is fair game; it can be used by advertisers, political parties, and others to target you with messages. Learn what else they use—from scratches on your camera lens in your pictures to a “like” from a friend-of-a-friend—to learn about you in unexpected detail and to predict your future behavior with surprising accuracy. x
    • 2
      The Mechanics of Data Harvesting
      No matter how careful you are about your online presence, information can be uncovered about you from data you didn't even know was being collected. One Washington Post reporter discovered that within one week, 5,400 hidden apps and trackers had received data from his phone! Learn some steps you can take to limit access to your personal information. x
    • 3
      Privacy Preferences: It's All about You
      How much do you care about your privacy? How concerned are you that specific individuals or groups could access your data? Examine why you must honestly identify your privacy profile before determining how to protect your online presence. Then, you can explore the privacy options that best meet your needs, knowing that it's always a tradeoff between privacy and convenience. x
    • 4
      The Upside of Personal Data Use
      We tend to be comfortable with the internet “knowing” about us when we understand how it acquired our data and how it’s being used. While ads geared to our purchase history might be annoying, we don’t find them nefarious. But you’ll be shocked to learn just how valuable those “recommender” algorithms are to the companies that own them. x
    • 5
      Online Tracking: Yes, You're Being Followed
      You don’t have to post information about yourself on a social media site to leave a trail of personal information; you’re unwittingly doing that every single time you visit a website—any website. Your IP address, cookies, browser fingerprinting, and more, create and track an electronic trail of your activities. Explore how you can block these trackers and hide your web activity to protect your privacy. x
    • 6
      Nowhere to Hide? Privacy under Surveillance
      When you accepted that car-tracking device from your auto insurance company, you chose to exchange some privacy for potential discounts. But you’ll be surprised to learn about the many other choices you make that you did not know could invade privacy—from using a medical device in your own bedroom to visiting the directory kiosk in a shopping mall, and much more. x
    • 7
      Consent: The Heart of Privacy Control
      When was the last time you thoroughly read and understood the privacy policies of your social media platforms? If you’re like most people, the answer is “never.” But how can you control your personal information if you don’t understand what you’re consenting to? Explore the myriad ways in which a lack of transparency has created societal harm in the past—and potential solutions. x
    • 8
      Data Scandals and the Lessons They Teach
      The website has assured you that your data is secure, so what can go wrong? Learn what the Cambridge Analytica, Google Buzz, and Ashley Madison scandals, among others, have taught us about data security. These debacles resulted in more than just personal inconvenience. Although we can never know the full extent of their effects, we do know lives were at stake. x
    • 9
      The Dark Web: Where Privacy Rules
      Is there any way to keep your comings and goings on the internet completely private? The answer might be the ominous-sounding dark web—not accessible from regular web browsers and not indexed by search engines. Explore the dark web and its Tor browser. Learn exactly how they protect your privacy and why you might, or might not, want to go that route. x
    • 10
      Algorithmic Bias: When AI Gets It Wrong
      Algorithms are built to learn from the vast amount of data collected about us for a variety of purposes, including significant decisions addressing employment, mortgage lending, and more. Discover how both the data and the algorithms can include accidental bias. Learn how this bias can impact people's lives, and what steps can be taken to address the issue. x
    • 11
      Privacy on the Global Stage
      Europeans legally own all data about themselves, and companies must comply with their wishes. In the United States, two-party communications are protected, but third-party communications (e.g., on Facebook) are not. In China, with an intrusive government, citizens have no expectations of privacy. Explore how these different privacy paradigms affect daily life—from bank loans to dating. x
    • 12
      Navigating the Future of Personal Data
      Examine the case of DNA and the fascinating effects of its changing access, use, and expected privacy—from interesting personal information to help in crime fighting to discrimination. With technology changing so quickly, can any real privacy assurances ever be made? Explore the California Consumer Privacy Act and the ways in which that law could affect all of us, in any U.S. state. x
  • Everyday Guide to Beer
    Course  |  Everyday Guide to Beer

    Distinguished Professor Emeritus Charles W. Bamforth, Pope of Foam

    Available Formats: Instant Video, DVD
    Professor Emeritus Charlie Bamforth of the University of California, Davis, often referred to as the “Pope of Foam” within the beer industry, has spent more than 40 years crafting, writing, and teaching others about beer and how to make it. In the 12 lessons of the The Everyday Guide to Beer, Dr. Bamforth takes you on a journey through the history of this surprisingly complex beverage.
    View Lecture List (12)
    Professor Emeritus Charlie Bamforth of the University of California, Davis, often referred to as the “Pope of Foam” within the beer industry, has spent more than 40 years crafting, writing, and teaching others about beer and how to make it. In the 12 lessons of the The Everyday Guide to Beer, Dr. Bamforth takes you on a journey through the history of this surprisingly complex beverage.
    View Lecture List (12)
    12 Lectures  |  Everyday Guide to Beer
    Lecture Titles (12)
    • 1
      8,000 Years of Beer
      Begin your journey with a primer on the history of beer and its place among peoples like the Sumerians, Egyptians, and the Medieval Benedictines. You'll learn about figures like Dukes William IV and Ludwig X of Bavaria and the Reinheitsgebot, and even hear the fascinating story behind the origin of British pub signs. x
    • 2
      Malt, Hops, Yeast, Water: How Beer Is Made
      Now that you've traveled through beer's history, you're ready to discover how it's made. You'll go in-depth with ingredients like malt and hops, and which geographic regions of the world each variety comes from. Then, Sierra Nevada's Head Brewer Scott Jennings will take you through the process of how this elite brewery produces its award-winning beer. x
    • 3
      A Grand Tour of Beer Styles
      Different fermentation techniques can result in radically different beer styles and flavors. Explore this concept within the context of products like ice beers, light beers, and dry" beers, as well as with unique categories like gueuze and lambics." x
    • 4
      All about Ales
      Ale is one of beer's most significant and diverse classifications. Here, you'll investigate popular versions like pale ales, India pale ales (IPAs), and Scotch ales. But did you know that porters and stouts are also ales? Go in depth with this important beer category and then discover the unique characteristics of each sub-type. x
    • 5
      All about Lagers
      Germany's impact on beer history cannot be overstated, and nowhere is this more prevalent than when drinking a glass of lager. A deceptively difficult beer to brew, this category includes styles like doppelbocks, marzens, and the increasingly popular Oktoberfest. But an Oktoberfestbier in Germany means something very different than it does in other parts of the world. x
    • 6
      Beers of the World: Who Drinks What
      The world's leading beer brand has significantly more market share than Budweiser and Coors Light combined, and you've likely never heard of it. In this lesson on the business of beer, find out how this is possible and what top producers like Anheuser-Busch InBev, and micro and regional breweries all mean for the industry as a whole. x
    • 7
      Enjoying Beer I: The Perfect Pour
      How a beer looks can influence our perception before we even take our first sip. Learn why everything from a beer's packaging and label to the bottles a brewery uses can affect our experience. You'll also discover how to pour a beer properly to get the appropriate amount of foam, and what nucleation sites in a glass do for both presentation and flavor. x
    • 8
      Enjoying Beer II: Maximizing Flavor
      Did you know that the aroma from hops is made up of at least 420 different compounds? Learn the typical flavor each type of malt infuses into a beer and how different chemicals combine to form the sweet, salt, sour, or bitter notes each style is known for. Conclude with the proper serving temperature for most of the major beer types you've learned about in previous lessons. x
    • 9
      Enjoying Beer III: Buying and Storing
      The way beer is stored, packaged, and distributed can have a huge impact on how it tastes. Ryan Mintzer, packaging and warehouse manager at Sierra Nevada, will take you through some of the brewery's best practices to ensure that each beer has optimal flavor and freshness before being poured into your glass. x
    • 10
      Pairing Beer with Food
      Pairing beer with food effectively can take some practice, but a few important tips will help you plan that next meal with confidence. Whether it's matching beer with existing recipes or actually adding it into a dish, beer's versatility should not be underestimated. Experience a five-course dinner menu with beer pairings, specially prepared by Jessie Massie, head chef at Sierra Nevada's Mills River Taproom. x
    • 11
      The Science of Quality Beer
      Quality in beer can be very subjective and a difficult thing to quantify. General Manager Brian Grossman, of Sierra Nevada's Mills River facility, and Quality Manager Liz Huber discuss this idea and how measurements of alcohol by volume (ABV), clarity, pH, and other checks are used to achieve desired results. x
    • 12
      Beer and Human Health
      Nutritious or just empty calories? In this final lesson, Dr. Bamforth will take you through the health benefits and risks associated with beer consumption, such as recommended consumption limits and why moderation has been preached since this beverage's early days. However, beer also contains antioxidants and an array of vitamins like niacin, folic acid, and riboflavin. x